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Mangroves of Australia

Threats

Threats to mangrove ecosystems include;

  • developments of the coastline such as reclaiming land (e.g. for building canal estates and marinas);
  • erosion of shorelines in coastal lakes and estuaries;
  • Declining water quality (increased levels in sediments, nutrients and pesticides) from land clearing, overgrazing and cropping;
  • increased levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, cadmium, zinc and mercury from anti-fouling paints;
  • marine oil pollution from sewage systems and drains, which are estimated at 16,000 tonnes a year over the whole of Australia;
  • accidental spills during re-fuelling of vessels in ports;
  • Aquaculture (increased siltation, erosion and nutrients);
  • Uncontrolled stock access;
  • Climate change (sea level rise and increase in storm/cyclone frequency and intensity)
  • Pressure: disturbance events (storms, cyclones, outbreaks and invasions by pests)
  • Human use (fishing, off-road vehicles, dumping of rubbish/waste and collecting).


Land development in Mumbai, India is
destroying mangrove forests
Image from Morrison World News


Oil pollution in Singapore's mangroves
Image from Wild Singapore

   
Mangrove destruction by a hurricane
in Cuba
Image from Ocean Doctor.org

A marked boundary is seen between blue ocean water and contaminants derived from soil erosion. The dark green zone below is largely intact mangrove forest
Image © studio matahari lutong Flickr

Aerial view of mangrove destruction
Image from Ministry of the Environment, Jaoan
Litter in the mangroves
Image from Wondercreation Blogspot
Damage from cattle grazing
Image from DPI NSW

Next: Conservation ...   

 

Introduction
Distribution and Diversity
Adaptations
Reproduction
Ecology
Mangrove Animals
Benefits
Threats
Conservation
Photo Gallery 1 - General
Photo Gallery 2 - Species
Photo Gallery 3 - Animals

 

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